Hattie McDaniel – (Actress)


1895 – 1952


By Dale Ricardo Shields 

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“Why should I complain about making seven hundred dollars a week playing a maid?

If I didn’t, I’d be making seven dollars a week actually being one” 


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Film Academy To Replace Hattie McDaniel’s ‘Gone With The Wind’ Oscar; Howard University To Get Statuette

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and the Academy Museum said today that they will gift a replacement of Hattie McDaniel’s 1939 Best Supporting Actress Academy Award for Gone with the Wind to the Howard University Chadwick A. Boseman College of Fine Arts.

The school will host a ceremony titled “Hattie’s Come Home” at its Ira Aldridge Theater in Washington, D.C., on October 1.

“Hattie McDaniel was a groundbreaking artist who changed the course of cinema and impacted generations of performers who followed her. We are thrilled to present a replacement of Hattie McDaniel’s Academy Award to Howard University,” Academy Museum Director and President Jacqueline Stewart and Academy CEO Bill Kramer said in a statement. “This momentous occasion will celebrate Hattie McDaniel’s remarkable craft and historic win.”

McDaniel received not a statuette but a plaque, as was customary for supporting performance winners from 1936-42. McDaniel bequeathed her Academy Award to Howard University upon her death in 1952, and the award was displayed at the university’s drama department until the late 1960s. Its whereabouts are unknown today.

McDaniel’s award stands out in Academy history in that it would be 51 years before another Black woman would win an acting Oscar, when Whoopi Goldberg took the Supporting prize for 1990’s Ghost.

“When I was a student in the College of Fine Arts at Howard University, in what was then called the Department of Drama, I would often sit and gaze in wonder at the Academy Award that had been presented to Ms. Hattie McDaniel, which she had gifted to the College of Fine Arts,” said Phylicia Rashad, dean of the Boseman College of Fine Arts. “I am overjoyed that this Academy Award is returning to what is now the Chadwick A. Boseman College of Fine Arts at Howard University. This immense piece of history will be back in the College of Fine Arts for our students to draw inspiration from. Ms. Hattie is coming home!”


“One of the most pivotal figures in 20th century African American history: a true trail-blazer who, in spite of the insurmountable odds against her, managed to make her own mark in Jim Crow America– and she did so with both her dignity in-tact and an overwhelming sense of self worth.”

– The Retro Set

“She was the first Black person to be invited to the Oscars, and she was also relegated to the back of the room. She went on to win the award for Best Supporting Actress and proudly ascended the Cocoanut Grove’s stage to accept the Oscar.

She was the first Black person to attend the Oscars, the first Black Oscar nominee and the first Black Oscar Winner – all in one night.”

 “This is one of the happiest moments of my life, and I want to thank each one of you who had a part in selecting me for one of their awards, for your kindness. It has made me feel very, very humble; and I shall always hold it as a beacon for anything that I may be able to do in the future. I sincerely hope I shall always be a credit to my race and to the motion picture industry. My heart is too full to tell you just how I feel, and may I say thank you and God bless you.”


"Born on June 10, 1895, in Wichita, Kansas, she was one of 13 children and the daughter of former slaves. Her parents introduced her to music and entertainment early on- her father was a Baptist preacher yet also sang and played the banjo in minstrel shows and her mother was a gospel singer. The family moved to Denver in 1901. By high school, Hattie's talents were already starting to shine in school and church; thus began her early career as a singer and a dancer. She often joined her father's minstrel act and toured with other vaudevillian troupes. In 1925, she became one of the first African-American women of radio- and the very first black female voice to sing on the radio. In the early 30's when she moved to L.A., she was able to garner small roles on the radio through her brother, Sam, and sister Etta (already working in radio/film)- which turned into bit roles as extras in films. In order to get by, she took on odd jobs in domestic work while pursuing radio and film work. But in 1934, she landed her first big break on-screen role as a maid in John Ford's JUDGE PRIEST."


Born on June 10, 1895, in Wichita, Kansas, Hattie was one of 13  children and the daughter of former slaves Henry and Susan McDaniel. Hattie’s father Henry McDaniel fought in the Civil War with the 122nd USCT and his mother, Susan Holbert, was a singer of religious music. In 1900, the family moved to Colorado, living first in Fort Collins and then in Denver, where Hattie graduated from Denver East High School.” (Wikipedia)

After working as early as the 1910s as a band vocalist, Hattie McDaniel debuted as a maid in The Golden West (1932).

From the 1860s to the 1960s one of the few employment opportunities for Black women in America was as a domestic servant. Consequently, the Mammy stereotype became the standard characterization of Black women in film and television.


McDaniel was presented her Academy Award by actress Fay Bainter. McDaniel was the first person of ‘color’ to win an Oscar.

The ‘mammy’ roles, played by actresses like Hattie McDaniels, Louise Beaver, and Ethel Waters, put a happy face on Black women’s lowly position in society, helping to set at ease the hearts of White audiences.


(Photo by Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images)

“Mammies were so happy to serve Whites that they were shown giving up their pay and even their freedom for the chance to continue serving “their White family.”

These images are mixed with news footage of the civil rights movement to show that this was not the case in the real world. 

Hattie McDaniel Bathing Jean Parker and Marion Davies (Getty Images)

“McDaniel bathed actresses Jean Parker and Marion Davies in the movie, Operator 13. Throughout her career, McDaniel was often confined to the role of a maid or servant because of her race.”



“It was Bing Crosby, a good friend of Hattie’s brother Sam (the only African-American ever to appear on I Love Lucy), who suggested that Selznick cast “that Queenie from [1936’s] Show Boat” for her defining role. Selznick, married to the daughter of the most powerful man in Hollywood — MGM head Louis B. Mayer — had paid a staggering $50,000 for the rights to Margaret Mitchell‘s 1936 novel. The NAACP made no secret of its disdain for the book’s frequent utterance of the N-word (by then banned by the Hays Code), its sympathetic Ku Klux Klan portrayal, and its depiction of slaves as participants in their subjugation.


“Elizabeth McDuffie, the White House cook, tested for producer David O. Selznick for the role of Mammy in his upcoming epic, GONE WITH THE WIND. Selznick, who never shied away from publicity of any kind, tested McDuffie after First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt suggested the talented member of her staff. A more serious consideration was Louise Beavers, one of the leading African-American movie actresses of her day. Ultimately, HATTIE McDANIEL (shown here taking a break from filming) was chosen to play the role and was awarded an Oscar for her efforts.”


A shrewd Hollywood player, Selznick used his status as a Jewish-American bearing witness to the Nazis’ rise when he wrote to Walter White, NAACP executive secretary: “I hasten to assure you that as a member of a race that is suffering very keenly from persecution these days, I am most sensitive to the feelings of minority peoples.” Selznick pledged to omit offending material, though he fought to keep the N-word in the script for historic accuracy. The word, which would have been spoken by Mammy, never appears in the movie, leading some historians to theorize that McDaniel refused to utter it.

Butterfly McQueen as Prissy, Hattie McDaniel as Mammy, and Oscar Polk as Pork

McDaniel — who later wrote in the Sept. 29, 1947, edition of The Hollywood Reporter, “I have never apologized for the roles I play” — coveted the part but suspected she’d lose it to Louise Beavers of 1934’s Imitation of Life. As Selznick mounted his “nationwide search,” the hunt for Mammy reached a fever pitch. Even first lady Eleanor Roosevelt suggested her own maid. On Jan. 27, 1939, with Selznick having secured the final funding from his father-in-law, McDaniel got the call she’d been waiting for. Her contract paid $450 a week for 15 weeks of shooting. Mammy was hers. And so, too, would be the Oscar.” 




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